For protection of environment, odour control is becoming an important consideration. Odours are likely to be generated from wide range of sources such as industrial effluents and sewage treatment procedures.
Removal of odour from sewage wet waste and sewage treatment plants are typical odour emission applications. Sewage odour consists of mainly H2S and hydrogen sulphide, which are dangerous to the environment. The gas hydrogen sulphide also consists of organic sulphur components and ammonia.
Technologies used for odour control can be grouped into 3 categories as below
- Chemical Absorption: It is the process in which a substance is taken by another substance. Chemical scrubbers offer odour elimination by absorption of mass transfer through contact of air steam with liquid solution on arbitrary packing material in a scrubbing chamber. Typically the liquid is water which is adjusted to proper oxidation and pH potential by chemicals.The presentation of any absorption scrubbing system is defined by two parameters. The adequacy if a chemical within the liquid phase and the efficiency of gas/liquid contact are the two parameters.There are various chemicals available in the market for chemical scrubbing systems, some are proprietary and are able to purchase only with an entire chemical feed system.
- Biological Oxidation: Biological oxidation is the procedure in which the bacteria and other type of micro-organisms consume dissolved organic substances and oxygen in wastewater by the use of released energy to convert organic carbon into carbon dioxide and cellular materials. There are 2 types of bio-oxidation. The first utilizes inorganic media and the other uses organic media, which is typically called bio-filters. Though the term filter is used, no filtration process is carried out in this technique. This is metabolic process.
- Adsorption: Adsorption is the process when atoms, molecules or ions of a source adhere to the surface of another element. It is simply can be defined as the process in which activated carbon is used to adsorb odorous compound into activated carbon material. The process is achieved by transferring the odorous air over the activated carbon bed, permitting the adsorptive procedure to follow and releases clean air to the environment.
Different classes of activated carbon is used in the procedure however, ‘standard activated carbon’ is the most effective and widely used class of activated carbon that utilizes physical adsorption. Materials other than activated carbon are likely to be utilized in the process such as potassium permanganate, zeolite as well as activated alumina.
Various systems are available in the market for odour control in wastewater lift stations however, the only way to treat the wastewater is the removal of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide and other odourous substances. Wastewater treatment is carried out to prevent building up of corrosion and/or hazardous conditions.
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