Aircraft carbon discs are used for handling, gliding, stopping, departures, and landing on commercial and military aircraft. The braking system is mounted on the wheels. Disc brakes are in use in aircrafts since a long time. Carbon disc brake systems and high-temperature brakes have better resistance against wear and tear even while braking at high speeds. Aircraft carbon brakes are manufactured with several discs and their application is mostly in heavy-duty applications such as military aircraft. They are mounted to an expanded bearing carrier similar to a torque tube assembly that bolts to the axle flange.
How Are Carbon Brakes Disc Made?
- Fabric Manufacturing: The process uses conventional textile manufacturing technology. At first the raw materials and obtained and fed into production line. Then the fiber is trimmed and chopped before being fed into carding machines. Finally, chopped fibers are combined with continuous fiber to create a layer-by-layer web of felted fabric.
- Carbonization: This process includes conversion of organic materials such as dead animal remains and plants into carbon through destructive distillation.
- Cutting and lay-up: Each layer is directed to achieve the strength and wear characteristics necessary by each brake disc. 80% of the discs are made of cloth and are cut into thin ring layers. To avoid any mistakes, a robot is used to slices the layers to a very precise level. To maintain the proper density, the discs are weighed carefully.
- Carbon Infiltration: Each disc is processed under chemical vapor filtration or deposition, spending several months inside the furnace at a temperature of more than 1000°C.
- Adding details: In the final step, discs are machined into their final form, which translates the extreme disorders of carbon atom complexes into almost flawless three-dimensional pure graphite crystals. A thermal conductivity test is then performed on each disc to provide the best efficiency. The disc is then painted to mitigate catalytic oxidation from contaminants such as de-icing agents on the runway and to avoid thermal oxidation at high temperatures.
Types Of Carbon Brakes Used In Aircraft
- Carbon carbon brakes: In high-performance military aircraft systems, carbon brakes are generally used. They aren’t similar to steel brakes. They are lighter in weight and have a greater capacity to absorb energy. Carbon Brakes are suitable for commercial aircraft’s high-performance braking needs as they have high stability, high thermal conductivity, and high heat characteristics. Carbon power for oneway refueling fibers is up to 700 MPa. Carbon-carbon fabrics maintain over 2000°C properties. With protective coatings to resist oxidation, this temperature can be exceeded. The substance is 1.6–1.98 g/cm dense. Carbon breaks reduce the weight of an aircraft which results in low fuel consumption and also reduces carbon dioxide emissions making it environmentally friendly. In the 1980s, carbon brakes became very popular for commercial aircraft. For the Boeing 747-400 and -400ER, 757-300, 767, and 777 as well as the MD-11 and MD-90 they were the core equipment.
- Carbon ceramic brakes: provides significant performance advantages, including weight, convenience, resistance to deterioration, longevity, and high-tech attractions in wet as well as dry environments. They have many advantages compared with other components, but their methods are considerably long and costly. It is all because of the manufacturing process that they are so costly. It takes a long and hard time to manufacture them. Until cooling off, a mixture of carbon fibers and silicon resin is put in molds under 20,000kg of pressure at a rate of 200°C.
Ceramic brake discs were produced for the first time in the 1980s, for high-speed trains as well as in various aerospace applications. They are composed of carbohydrates combined with silicon and epoxy binder. This mixture is added to the steel mold to produce the discs. Usually, these discs last for longer than conventional cast-iron discs. This is partly because the ceramic / carbon mixture is highly strong and resistant to wear. Normal brakes produce an adhesive black stain which tends to settle on the wheel whereas, Carbon ceramic brakes produce a fine white powder that is not a pollutant for the wheel.
Aircraft Carbon Brake Disc Industry Insights
The integrated and emerging industry forces that cited an upturn in the field of commercial aviation are producing carbon disc aircraft for commercial narrow-body aviation. In the future, demand for air-carbon brake discs will give tailwinds to research on lightweight components for better fuel as well as economic performance. This industry also wants to expand in China and India, providing competitive flight fares, encouraging airlines to launch new planes and provide profitable prospects for carbon-disk-makers of aircraft.
Why Is Demand For Carbon Brake Disc Increasing?
- Lightweight fuel components and their cost-effectiveness
- Ability to resist high temperatures in comparison to other brake varieties.
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The commercial aircraft business is expected to grow, in turn fuelling the demand for carbon brake disks. The demand is expected to rise in developed and in developing countries, alike. North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific, Middle East & Africa, and South America will emerge as leading markets.